Sunday, 7 November 2021

Our Built Heritage

 





Built Heritage — an important institution in developing countries that conveys meaning

The built heritage of Trinidad has been under threat for the last 60 years, as private houses, public buildings and various 19th century structures have given way to modernity, reflecting the extent to which Trinidad and Tobago does not require the visitor market to look at its 19th century colonial architecture, as is the case in many of our neighbouring islands, former colonies of the British Empire, who must depend on the tourist trade. We, however, depend on the petrochemical industry as our main hard currency earner. The political will to save the built heritage also does not exist, as the politicising of the country has had more to do with the eradication of the past in terms of records, archives and built heritage.

Seen here are drawings of various houses connected to the following story. La Chance and Perseverance have been destroyed. Champs Elysées has been remodelled for the purpose of the Trinidad Country Club. Cumberland House has been remodelled for the purpose of government offices. The Boissière house on St. Vincent Street and the Boissière House at Queen's Park West still exist, both are in the hands of members of the same family that established itself here in the last decade of the 18th century, before the British Conquest of Trinidad in 1797.


TOP TO BOTTOM:

CHAMPS ELYSEES ESTATE, MARAVAL, TRINIDAD, 1820
The property and residence of John Boissière, this building was the second built on the site. It replaced the original house that had been erected in 1779 for Rosa Marquise de Charras, née de Gannes de La Chancellerie by her son of a previous marriage, Phillip Rose Roume de St. Laurent, who was responsible for the framing of the Cedula of Population. Illustrated by Peter Shim.

HOUSE ON ST. VINCENT STREET, PORT OF SPAIN, TRINIDAD
built and lived in by Eugene Boissière 1870's. Illustrated by Gerald Watterson.

PERSEVERANCE ESTATE HOUSE, MARAVAL, TRINIDAD
In Spanish times (before 1797), the estate known as Moka (Mocha) in the upper reaches of the Maraval Valley was owned by Don Francisco Mendez. It is not clear whether Perseverance formed a part of that property. However, from early 19th century records, we know that Perseverance was owned by the Chevalier Hippolite Borde and comprised some 340 acres. It was later owned by M. Paul La tour who built the Great House in 1850 and whose son Dr. Georges Louis La tour and his half sister Paula Louisa Leoniza Ultima Latour was born there in 1851. The House passed into the hands of Albert (Baba) Cipriani who, by the 1920's, added many embellishments. He lived there in extravagant style until, faced with business reversals, he too was forced to sell. In 1926, Perseverance was sold to an English Man, James Evans.

CUMBERLAND HOUSE, ABERCROMBY STREET, TRINIDAD
Cumberland House, which once stood on Cumberland Street now Abercromby Street was built by Jules Cipriani. He became a successful businessman, and owned several cocoa estates at the turn of the 19th century. He was a commission agent and an exporter of locally grown produce. Illustrated by Peter Shim.

LA CHANCE, ARIMA, TRINIDAD
was the property and residence of Gaston de Gannes de La Chancellerie who was born in Trinidad in 1838. In the 1860's he married Miss Sophie Cipriani "and took his young bride up the Caroni by corial, or dug out canoe". On the banks of the river, just south of the village of Arima, he developed a large cocoa estate. A few years later he acquired some 50 acres on the 0 'Meara Road to the south of the old Arima Railway Station and there he built La Chance. Illustrated by Peter Shim.

THE GINGERBREAD HOUSE, CHARLES BOISSIÈRE'S HOUSE ON QUEENS PARK WEST, PORT OF SPAIN, TRINIDAD
Charles Boissière inherited his father's business Eugene Boissière & Co. in 1910. He retired from active business in the 1920. Illustrated by Gerald Watterson.

The Fires of Liberty in the New World

Two very important anniversaries in the Americas are: the 4th July is the Independence Day of the United States, and the 5th July that of Venezuela. 

Both those dates commemorate the end of revolutions, and the men who initiated and fought are today remembered as heroes and liberators. The Caribbean, in fact, has had many revolutionaries in the French, English and Spanish colonies. The upheavals acted as triggers for migration, and especially we in Trinidad have ancestors who came as the result of revolution in their previous homes. During the times of British colonialism, the heroes of other nations were all but forgotten. "One of the troubles with our system of education is that it ignores the region to which we belong. What does the school-boy in San Fernando know about Simon Bolivar? Or about Jose Marti? Or about Toussaint of Haiti?" said Prof. Dr. Philip Sherlock in a radio programme in 1964. Today, as an independent nation, we will blow away the thick layer of dust from the marble busts of the heroes, an have a look at who some of those revolutionaries really were.

The close of the 18th century was a pivotal period for the western hemisphere north and south. It was a time of war, where England  fought its old enemy France, who in turn supported the colonists in North America who were struggling for independence. Spain, who was now out of the race for European dominance of the New World, fought to keep her colonies in South America; colonies she could hardly now afford to maintain.  

The colonies in both North and South America overthrew the monarchies—the House of Hanover, England's ruling dynasty, in the North, and Spain's House of Bourbon in the South—and went on to write for themselves republican constitutions. 

The war of American Independence came to an end in 1781 with the surrender of General Cornwallis, the commander of English troops in the American colonies. Great Britain recognised the government of the United States of America as independent. Slavery was made illegal in the state of Massachusetts on the ground that the words in the constitution of 1780 were "All men are born free and equal", which was a nullification of slavery. Maryland followed and also outlawed the slave trade.  

George Washington was born in Bridges creek, Virginia, in 1732. His great-grandfather was first mentioned in Virginia about 70 years earlier, where he acquired wealth and public standing. George's father Augustine died while George was still a little boy. George was a healthy boy, and in 1747, he went to Mount Vernon, the residence of his eldest half-brother Lawrence, who had inherited most of the estate. In 1748, George gained employment with the Fairfaxes, the family of Lawrence's wife, as a surveyor of the Fairfax property. During his employment, George learnt to hunt, to use arms and became interested in the strategies of warfare. In 1751, George came to the Caribbean, to Barbados to be precise, to accompany his half-brother in the last months of his life; he died the following year of consumption. George inherited the estate and became guardian of his niece. 

In 1755, Washington became involved in warfare for the first time, when the English colonies of America sent an expedition against the French colonies of that continent. Four years later, he married a rich young widow, and upon the death of his niece he became one of the richest men in America.

The British colonies in America became involved in a five-year quarrel with Britain in 1765. Washington first had the viewpoint of peaceful measures and negotion, but soon changed his view in that he favoured force to defend his countrymen's rights. He took a leading part in the political arena, and being neither an orator nor a writer, he excelled in common sense and management of affairs. Becoming commander-in-chief,  he led the first American contingent against the British in Boston in 1775.  

In the following six years, the Americans waged a war for independence against the British. In close alliance with the French from 1778 onwards, the war was eventually won in 1781, and George Washington resigned his commission as commander in chief of the American army, having accomplished his great work of defeating the British forces. In 1793 he laid the cornerstone of the Capitol in Washington in a masonic ritual in which he presided as master.  

In the war for the independence of the British colonies in North America, several thousand Africans had fought on both sides. Slaves gained their freedom for serving the Union under General George Washington. Some black regiments came from as far away as Haiti.

"The aim of the Franco-American alliance was to evict the British from Savannah, Georgia," remarks Smithsonian Museum their publication The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution. They continue: "In early September [of 1779], a French fleet of thirty-three sail, under the command of the Comte d'Estaing, anchored off the Georgia cost and discharged its troops. As reported in the Paris Gazette, there were 2,979 'Europeans' and 545 'Coloureds': 'Volunteer Chasseurs, Mulattoes, and Negroes, newly raised at St. Domingo,' the latter called the Fontages Legion after its French commander. 

"Among the coloured volunteers in the American cause were young men destined to become famous in the Haitian revolution—among them were André Rigaud and Luis Jacques Beauvais, non-commissioned officers at Savannah; Martial Besse, a general under the Versailles Convention; Jean Baptisete Mars Belley, deputy to the convention; and Henri Christophe, future king." 

French revolutionary thinkers, such as the Marquis de Lafayette, influenced the framers of both the American and Haitian constitutions. As a result, Haitian patriots supported Washington's war for independence.

Among many Haitians who came to Trinidad and Tobago were also the descendants of General Alexander Dumas, another hero of the Haitian revolution. Today, the family of Reginald Dumas, former head of the Public Service, still live in our country. 

Africans fought also for England, as witnessed by the Company Villages in south Trinidad. Soldiers of these Black detatchments in the British army were transported to Trinidad and given land and freedom. 

In Trinidad, 1783 was a pivotal year. It saw the promulgation of the Cedula of Population, a document issued from the Spanish Royal Court at Madrid that was of special importance to our island. It established an immigration policy to Trinidad, and defined the creation of modern Trinidad as distinct from the old, Spanish times. It opened the doors to significant agricultural development. Even after the abolition of slavery here in 1838, this agricultural foundation went on to make this island one of the wealthiest territories in these parts. The cedula also served to create one of the most racially diversified places in the world through its terms. The whole agreement was the work of a significant man, Philippe Rose Roume de St. Laurent, who had been born in the island of Grenada. Roume de St. Laurnet later served the French government as 'ordinateur' (judge) in Tobago. He represented Napoleon Bonaparte as one of the commissioners of Haiti. When he married Marianne Rochard, a coloured woman from Tobago, in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Toussaint L'Ouverture and his brother were their witnesses.



Simon Bolivar

1783 was also the year that Simon Bolivar, the great liberator of South America, was born in Caracas. For more than 200 years, this city had been one of the great centres of Spanish imperial power in South America. Ever since de Losada had founded it in 1567, Caracas had grown in size, power and influence. 

The Bolivars were one of the great families of Caracas. In their veins ran the blood of Africa, of the Iberian peninsula, and of the natives of the Andes. They owned large estates of sugar cane which were worked by slave labour, as well as silver mines that produced tremendous wealth. Simon's grandfather had been granted a colonial title of nobility by the Spanish court. 

Orphaned before his fifteenth birthday, Simon Bolivar's maternal grandfather, Feliciano Palacios, took him in his care and arranged for him to have the best possible education in Venezuela and in Spain. Amongst his tutors were Simon Rodriguez and Andres Bello. Simon distinguished himself during the years of his education in Spain with his academic accomplishments. There, at the age of 18, he fell in love with Teresa del Toro, who was a year younger. The families insisted on a year's delay of marriage. At the end of the year, Bolivar married Teresa and took his wife back to one of the family's plantations in the valley of Aragua, near Caracas. Not long after, Teresa died of a malignant fever, and the heartbroken Simon swore never to remarry. He kept his oath, however, he always enjoyed the company of women and admitted that the inspiration he gained from them was a necessity to him.

Single, young Bolivar returned to Europe. He was the guest of the Marquis de Uztaiz, who gave him access to one of the greatest private libraries of Spain, famous for its collections on the physical sciences, history, philosophy and politics. It was during this period at Cadiz that Simon met Francisco de Miranda.  

Miranda was a remarkable person. He was the type of intellectual that revolution turns into a military leader, and he became the precursor of Venezuela's fight for independence. Born in Caracas, Francisco's education was immense. He had devoted many years to the study of politics. Simon Bolivar was greatly influenced by the older man's grasp of culture and history, and of the philosophy of the "rights of man". Bolivar became a member of Lodge Lautro in Cadiz in 1803, together with two other great South American patriots, José de San Martin, later the liberator of Argentina, and Bernardo O'Higgins, later the national hero of Chile. 

Argentine soldier and statesman, national hero of Argentina, José de San Martin was born in Yapeyu in 1778. Played a great part in winning independence for his native land, Chile and Peru. Officer in the Spanish army (1789-1812), but helped Buenos Aires in its struggle for independence (1812-1814). Raised army in Argentina, and in January 1817 marched across the Andes to Chile, where he and Bernardo O'Higgins defeated the Spanish at Chacabuco and Maipo, thus winning independence for Chile. Subsequently, he won independence for Peru and became this country's protector. He resigned in 1822 after differences with Bolivar and died in exile in Boulogne in 1850.

Bernardo O'Higgins, the Chilean revolutionary, born in Chillán in 1778, illegitimate son of Ambrosio O'Higgins, the Irish-born viceroy of Chile and Peru. Played a great part in the Chilean revolt of 1810-1817, and became known as the 'Liberator of Chile'. In 1817-1823 he was the new republic's first president, but was deposed after a revolution and retired to Peru, where he died in 1842. 

This was a time when words like "liberty" and "equality" were powerful concepts. The term "rights of man" can be understood only against the background of a Europe dominated by autocratic monarchs, supported by aristocracies that excluded vast majorities of the population. The furnace of the French Revolution had branded those ideas upon the consciousness of a generation. The revolution in France was followe by the era of Napoleon Bonaparte, and there was a growing interest in science and the roots of another revolution, the Industrial Revolution.  

In Paris, Simon Bolivar met the great German scientist and explorer Alexander von Humboldt, who knew South America well. Bolivar told him his feelings of the dignity of life in his homeland, and to this von Humboldt replied: "I believe that your country is ripe for emancipation. But who will be the man to undertake so vast an enterprise?" 

Bolivar traveled to Rome in the company of his former tutor Simon Rodriguez. There, one golden afternoon, they climbed to the top of the Aventin Hill, where more than 2000 years before the ancient Romans had been accustomed to reaffirm their right for freedom.

Simon Bolivar gazed long at the monuments and the ruins of classical buildings spread before him. Then, all of a sudden, he turned to Rodriguez and said:"I swear before you, I swear by the God of my fathers, by my fore-fathers themselves, by my honour and my country, that I shall never allow my hands to be idle or my soul to rest until I have broken the shackles which bind us to Spain."

Thus, great decisions are made, and this one was to be the turning point for South American affairs. Sometimes, a person would move to the moment of decision so gradually that at first, there is no sign of change or of the turn in his or her life. But to others, it is a bolt from the blue, a moment of revelation, such as happened to Paul on the Damascus Road. 

Not long after his stay in Rome, upon his return to Caracas, Bolivar met with a group known as the Patriotic Society. They were in disorder and had no idea how to go forward. Bolivar forced the issues, cried out to them: "These doubts are the sad effects of our ancient chains. Chains we no longer need to wear. They say that we should prepare for great projects with calm - are not 300 years of calm sufficient? Without fear, let us lay the cornerstone of South American independence."

Events moved swiftly. Bolivar, Andres Bello and others went to London in search of British help. They also persuaded Francisco de Miranda to return and lead the armies of Liberation. It was his second attempt to break the shackles that bound the southern continent to Spain. 

But the general, who had once commanded an army on the Rhine, was now too old - he could not adapt himself to guerrilla warfare, bungled the campaign and accepted terms from the Spanish. Bolivar arrested him. The rot, however, had set in. 

The revolution was smashed, the leaders arrested. Miranda was sent to Spain in chains. Bolivar escaped to Curaçao and eventually to Haiti, where Toussaint L'Ouverture offered asylum. All his property and estates in Venezuela were confiscated. Notwithstanding, he kept his courage and his flaming faith in the cause of liberation.

When Bolivar returned to Venezuela, the tide was turned from the neighbouring island of Trinidad. From there, a small band of men, remembered as the "Immortal 45", crossed the Gulf of Paria under the command of a young man by the name of Santiago Moreño. They took the coastal towns, drawing thousands to their cause.  

Bolivar's famous Cartagena manifesto demonstrated the importance for all American States to work together for independence. The second phase of the revolution was now underway. Final victory was yet a long way away., however. 

Simon Bolivar kept the course and held before him the lesson "Let no motive therefore make you swerve from your duty, violate your vows or betray your trust." 

 "United we are strong" is a concept as old as humanity. In the history of nations, it manifests itself in the form of federations. Simon Bolivar had a dream of a federation of South American states, with his home country, Venezuela, being part of that. Partly liberator and elected president, partly dictator, Bolivar succeeded in joining Venezuela, Colombia and New Granada into a republic called Colombia. In 1822, Ecuador was joined, and in 1824 Peru. Upper Peru was named Bolivia in his honour, however, the inhabitants of that state were not at all satisfied with Bolivar's consitution and drove out his troops. In 1828, also the republicans in Colombia rebelled against Bolivar's supreme power, and in 1829, Venezuela split from the federation and elected José Antonio Páez as president. A year later, Bolivar died, leaving behind a shattered federation, but a dream of federation very much alive in the former Spanish colonies of South America. 

Páez' power collapsed in the 1840s, when liberal ideas became stronger. From 1846 to 1858, control of the country was in the hands of José Tadeo Monagas and his brother José Gregorio. They were not liberal, and apart from the abolition of slavery in 1854, nothing much was achieved for the people.

After the collapse of the Monagas regime, chaos and turmoil struck Venezuela for twelve years. Páez tried to once more restore order in the early 1860s, but failed. The turmoil ended with Antonio Guzmán Blanco assuming power in 1870 and assuming dictatorial rule until 1888.  

A quantity of Venezuelan families from both Caracas and the coastal towns came to Trinida in the period of the dictators. Others merely renewed older links with the island. French creole families, such as the Ganteaumes and the Pantins, and German creoles such as Wuppermann and Siegert, married into Caracanian families, such as Machado and de Tova. 

Guzmán, like the other dictators, did not achieve any alleviation in the mass poverty of Venezuela. He rebuilt Caracas, but the rural masses remained in their hovels. After his regime ended, the country again fell into chaos, until stability was re-gained at the terrible price of oppression and brutality. Cipriano Castro ruled from 1899 to 1908, followed by Juan Vicente Gómez from 1908 until 1935.

 "Bolivar's dreams of liberty and freedom proved illusory," writes Esmond Wright (ed.) in "History of the World". Dr. Philip Sherlock adds in a lecture on Radio Guardian, 1964: "Bolivar had been successful in the war because he had the support of the great conservative families. They were hostile to Spain. But when Spain was defeated, all hte old vested interests began to assert their power and take charge. It was the old landed estate, the latifundia, against any form of democratic rule. Bolivar dreamed of a great federation of the South American continent, that would be the counterpart of the United States. The nine years between 1821 and 1830 found Bolivar struggling to defeat the parochialism and selfishness of the landed proprietors. The struggle brought frustration and defeat."


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Toussaint L'Ouverture

 William Wordsworth wrote of Toussaint L'Ouverture:

"There is not a breathing of the common wind that will forget thee;
thou hast great allies;
thy friends are exultation,
agonies and love,
and man's unconquerable mind."
(published in the Morning Post, 2 February 1803)

Pierre Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture - his surname possibly deriving from his bravery in battle where he once made a breach in the ranks of the enemy, was born a slave on Breda plantation, St. Domingue (Haiti), in 1746. It is said that he came from noble stock, in that he was the grandson of an African king, King Goau-Guinou of the Aradas. He was taught to read and write by Pierre Baptiste, a free black. It would appear that his father was highly regarded by the master of L'Habitation Breda, the Comte de Noé, who, upon his marriage to a slave Pauline, granted him 'liberté de savanne', a partial freedom that allowed the slave, although still the property of his master, freedom within the confines of the estate to live his own life.
"Toussaint's father was also granted a parcel of land and five slaves of his own to work for him," wrote Wenda Parkinson in an account of the life of Toussaint, entitled "The gilded African". There were five children born to the marriage, Pierre, the eldest, became a colonel in the army of the king of Spain; Paul served as a general in the French colonial army, Marie Jean, the only girl, married a colonel. There was a boy who died young named Goau-Guinou after his royal grandfather, and then there was Toussaint.
Philip Sherlock wrote of him:
"Toussaint had a quick mind, he learnt quickly, learnt from his father the use of healing herbs; learnt the ancient stories of his people, and above all learnt to hate the degradation of slavery."
The Comte de Noé was a man of the enlightenment and recognised in this family a natural intelligence. Being kindly, he lent the boys books.
St. Domingue, the futile, prosperous colony that it was, groaned beneath the weight of slavery. Toussaint saw men and women treated not as human beings, but as things. As a youth, tall, thin, a trifle frail, he was called 'fatras baton' - the thrashing stick. He tested his strength swimming the fast-flowing rivers, climbed to the hilltops alone and crawled up the rocky crags on the mountains above Breda. He saw the schooners and sloops setting out from Haitian ports for France, laden with such quantities of sugar, coffee, indigo and cotton that all of Europe marvelled. He saw the production of sugar grow and then grow even more to the stage when Haiti in 1789 was producing one third more sugar than all the British colonies in the Caribbean.
His father, the coachman to the Comte de Noé, would take him along when the Comte attended the affairs of the nobility. He saw the wealth that flowed into the estates, the finery from Paris, the opulence of absolute ownership. He knew that all this power and wealth rested on the basis of plantation slavery and was witness to the appalling cruelty so revolting that it would sicken you if it were to be recalled in detail.
Beneath this power, this wealth, beneath the crushing heel, there was a rising anger, swelling like some vast tide. As an explosion it came in 1791 when 100,000 Africans rose in revolt and swept the north of St. Domingue with fire and sword.
Toussaint joined the rebels. At first, he was suspect. They had won the hard-fought battles; they had put the fire, and they had faced the fire. But his determination was relentless and his skill in war obvious. By sheer power of his leadership he came to be regarded as their best general.
Regiments from France arrived and the colonists by and large refused the moderate terms of peace that were asked by Toussaint and the rebels. The colonists were contemptuous. "Did Toussaint think that they had brought half a million African slaves to the New World to make them French citizens?" they asked.
Now came the heroic moment in Toussaint's life: should he take the easy road and return to Breda, or the difficult road that meant years of war, perhaps even defeat? As a learned man, he may have remembered the words of Pericles, spoken in Athens over the Athenians who had given their lives for their country: "Life was dear, but they held their honour dearer, and so when the hour came it brought not terror but glory."
With that decision, a rebellion without a clear purpose became a war of liberation.
The hounds of war howled over the island and behind came the horsemen of the apocalypse, bringing disease, starvation and death. Toussaint first fought the French, then the Spaniards in the eastern half of the island (now the Dominican Republic). Then he fought against Maitland and his English army. His tattered army victorious, he now ruled all the island which Christopher Columbus had named Hispaniola, both what was once French and what was once Spanish.
In France, the French Revolution had swept the monarchy from the throne and had beheaded the aristocracy. Out of that new reality came Napoleon Bonaparte. The shadow of the Corsican dictator fell over all Europe. In Haiti, Toussaint strove to create a free African state. Napoleon saw quite clearly the real meaning of the Haitian revolution. He knew that the successful slave revolt in that island was a turning point in the history of the New World. He himself told his minister Talleyrand to inform England that "the freedom of the Negroes, if recognised in St. Domingue and legalised by France, would at all times be a rallying point for freedom-seekers of the New World".
Napoleon sent an armada of 46 ships to Haiti's harbours, carrying an army of 46,000 men to subdue Toussaint and his people. At first, the Haitian was overwhelmed and dismayed at the vastness of Napoleon's army. Turning of a strategy of "burnt earth", he summoned his best general Jean-Jacques Dessalines and instructed him:
"Remember that this soil nourished on our blood and sweat must not yield a crumb of food to our enemies. Keep all roads under constant fire. Throw the bodies of horses and men into all wells and springs, destroy everything, burn everything."
The three terrible allies Toussaint, yellow fever and dysentery reduced Napoleon's army to a shambles. In the end, having lost 60,000 men, Napoleon withdrew from the New World and gave up his designs on Haiti and Louisiana.
Toussaint had secured the freedom of Haiti. His actions were of direct benefit to the infant Federation of the United States, to whom Napoleon sold Louisiana. Toussaint, however, did not see the end. Betrayed by one of his friends, French General Brunet, he was kidnapped and taken to France. As the ship sailed into the rolling Atlantic swells, Haiti hardly more than a memory hovering on the horizon, Toussaint said:
"In overthrowing me, you have cut down in Haiti only the trunk of the tree of liberty. It will spring up again by the roots, for they are numerous and deep."
Toussaint L'Ouverture died ten months later in a fortress in the bleak and wintry Jura mountains, but the roots of the tree sprouted again and in 1804 Haiti was finally free.


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Monday, 1 March 2021

Video: Gérard Besson reads from "Folklore & Legends of Trinidad and Tobago"


In this video, Gérard A. Besson reads a prose poetry piece that he wrote in 1973, based on the impressions that he had gathered when walking along the Paria Main Road in the Northern Range of Trinidad. 

It was subsequently published in "Tales of the Paria Main Road" and in "Folklore & Legends of Trinidad and Tobago". 

This video was produced on 28 February 2021 at the author's home, following a request by the National Library of Trinidad and Tobago for a contribution to commemorate "World Read Aloud Day 2021". 

Enjoy! Cric! Crac!

Wednesday, 18 November 2020

Tombstones of Tobago

The Tombstones of Tobago 

collected by Tom Cambridge

 former warden of Tobago. 

.


Alexander Graham

Sacred to the Memory of 
ALEXANDER GRAHAM 
Merchant in Scarborough 
A native of the City of Glasgow in Scotland 
who died XXV of September MDCCCXXIII (1823) 
In the 30th year of his age. 

Main Street, Scarborough, Tobago 

Andrew Macpherson

ST. ANDREW'S CHURCHYARD,
Scarborough, Tobago. 
Sacred to the Memory of 
The Late Honourable 
ANDREW MACPHERSON 
Native of Forres Scotland, 
Medical Practitioner 
for 28 years in this island 
who departed this life on the 
6th day of September 1851 aged 51 years.
This stone is erected by his beloved wife 
EUPHEMIA MACPHERSON. 

Tobago Methodist Church Pembroke


Ann Kege

SANGSTER'S HILL ANN KEGE
Died 1806
aged 35 years. 
Beneath this verdant turf Poor Nancy lies. 
Stop all who knew her here 
and wipe your eyes 
Think not one tear too much 
to shed for her 
whose death has caused my 
negligence

Family on the way to the market

Ann Wilhemina Darling

Sacred to the Memory of 
ANNE WILHELMINA 
The beloved wife of 
CHARLES HENRY DARLING, Esq.
The eldest son of Major General 
HENRY CHARLES DARLING. 
The Lieutenant Governor of this island. 
Born 13th July, 1813 
Died 16th October, 1837

Anne Robinson

Here lies the body of 
ANNE 
the wife of His Excellency 
Sir. F.P ROBINSON 
Governor of Tobago. 
She died on the 6th day of October 1825 in the 60th year of her age after a painful and tedious illness which she bore with unexampled fortitude and pious resignation to the Devine Will.

Entrance to King's Camp Government House Hill

Augusta Robinson

To the Memory of 
AUGUSTA ROBINSON 
4th daughter of 
Sir. F.P. ROBINSON, K.G.B. 
She died of a malignant fever 
April 19th 1820 in the 15th year of her age. 
While living she was the delight of the family to whom 
her death was the cause of inexpressible grief. 

Tobagonian woman with her produce from the market

Betty Creighton's Will

In the name of the Lord our God, Amen, 
I, Betty Creighton, now in pain and fearing my days are nearly spent, make this last will and testament. Though weak in body yet sound in mind as e'er a Solomon left behind. 
first I desire two earthly crust 
May decently be laid in dust, and let some stone point out the spot, where Betty Creighton lies to rot and to defray the cast thus told my negress fanny must be sold next to Betty Hunter my friend so strue, I leave the remaining residue; 
Also my household furniture -
Though I must confess its gift is poor; For she must take on her the trouble 
to see me laid beneath the stubble 
Next is old Mary Ann Denoon 
(although they'll follow very soon) 
I leave my house and lot of land and stock, the whole at 
her command.
"Old James Denoon" and his son James jointly Executor I do appoint 
Of my last will this is the whole, 
So God above receive my soul. 
May 20, 1815 (Signed) Betty her + Creighton 

Women on the way to the market

Catherine Yeates

CHARLOTIEVILLE ESTATE 
To the Memory of 
CATHERINE YEATES 
Died the 3rd day of June, 1810 
and Elizabeth 
aged 1 year and 7 months 

A young boy making his way down the hill to town

Charles Edward Grimstone

CHARLES EDWARD GRIMSTONE 
Died February 1851 
aged 7 years and 10 months. 
"Suffer the little children to come 
unto me and forbid them not. 
For of such is the Kingdom of God." 
also of 
HARRIETT 
The beloved wife of the above named 
CHARLES ISAAC LEPALSTRIER 
who was summoned to follow 
his dear little ones 
to another and better world 
on the 26th September of the same year 
the 31st year of her age. 
"The Lord giveth and the Lord taketh away. 
Blessed is the name of the Lord." 

A vendor in Scarborough

Charles Foster Groom - Merchiston Estate

Merchiston Estate 
Sacred to the Memory of 
CHARLES 
second son of 
JAMES FOSTER GROOM Esq. of London

Scarborough

Charles Isaac Le Plastrier

Sacred to the Memory of 
The Honourable CHARLES ISAAC LAPLASTRIER 
Provost Marshal - General of this Colony 
Died 25th December, 1868. 
aged 61 years. 
also of 
WILLIAM LA PLASTRIER. 
His son 
died 6th February.1869 
in his 19th year 
'The Memory of the Just is Blessed." 

Fishing boat in Scarborough

Charles Nash

Mural tablets on the walls of 
St. Andrew's Church, Scarborough. 
Sacred to the Memory of CHARLES 
eldest son of Charles Nash Esq. 
of Friday Street, London 
who departed this life 
19th November, 1841 aged 26 years. 

Methodist Church

Charles W. Sealy

To the Memory of 
CHARLES W. SEALY 
Born 25th December 1854 
Died 27th January 1869. 

Tobago Windmill Ruin Bucco Estate

Christopher Sweedland

RICHMOND 
Sacred to the Memory of 
CHRISTOPHER SWEEDLAND 
Second son of Capt. George Sills 
late Clerk of the Checque of the
Tower of London. 
He departed this life on the 
8th January 1840 aged 30 years. 

Courland Estate - Old Great House

COURLAND ESTATE 
near site of the-Old Great House. 
SACRED to the Memory of 
ELIZA MAC DOUGAL 
Second daughter of JAMES McQUEEN 
An affectionate wife 
A tender Mother 
A dutiful daughter 
and a kind friend 
who died January 27th 1837 
in the 30th year of her life. 
This stone is erected to her memory 
by her afflicted husband 
ALEXANDER MAC DOUGAL 
1837 

Tobago:  Richmond Estate House

Donald Urquhart 

To the Memory of 
DONALD URQUHART 
Carpenter who died at Speyside Estate 
on the 15th of June, 1837 
aged 32 years 
(The remainder of the inscription is defaced.) 

Edward Randell

Sacred to the Memory of 
EDWARD RANDELL 
Infant son of 
Charles Isaac and Harriett Le Plastrier 
Died 15th January, 1851 
aged 1 year and 5 months 
and of his brother.

Old Water wheel

Eliabeth Cruickshank

Amity Hope 
Beneath this stone 
are deposited 
the remains of 
ELIABETH CRUICKSHANK 
wife of JOHN CRUICKSHANK, Esq. 
who departed this life 
on the 11th February, 1839 aged 47 years. 

Elizabeth Tait

SCOTCH KIRK BURIAL GROUND, Scarborough
Sacred to the Memory of 
ELIZABETH TAIT 
wife of the Honourable Peter Tait 
who departed this life 
8th March 1857 aged 55 years 
"The dead in Christ shall rise first 

Tobago Ruin of old Bishop high School

Emily Stoney

Sacred to the Memory of 
EMILY, daughter of Lieut H.B. STONEY 
6th Regiment Fort Adjutant, Tobago 
aged six months 
died 9th day of November 1847 

Ensign Selway

Sacred to the Memory of 
Ensign SELWAY 36th Regiment 
Died 29th July 1827 

ERNESTINA ROSALIE RENKEWITZ

Born 30th June, 1842 
Departed 3rd May, 1843. 

Fort King George

FORT GRANBY 

Beneath this stone lies interred the Body of 
Mr. JAMES CLARK who departed this life the 
6th of July, 1772. Aged 30 years.

Close up of the stone work of Fort King George

Frederica Caroline Anderson - Plymouth


FREDERICA CAROLINE ANDERSON 
Born March 16th 1849. 
Died January 30th 1882 
age 32 years. 

........................................

PLYMOUTH

Within these wall are deposited the Bodies of 
Mrs. BETTY STIVEN and her child. She was the beloved wife 
of ALEX STIVEN who to the end of his days will 
deplore her death, which happened upon the 25th day 
of November 1783 in the 23rd year of her age was 
remarkable of her she was a mother without knowing it, 
and a wife without letting her husband know it, except 
by her kind indulgences to him. 

........................................

On the northern horn of the beautiful bay of Plymouth which lies on the north coast of Tobago are to be seen the ruins of what was once the substantial residence of president SCOTT It is still said that if he had not retired when he did from the Government Service he would surely have been made Governor of the Island. But when told this he always answered that his house was as good as Government House and in it he would sooner rest than work in Government House. 
In the grounds of this ruined house, and some ten or twelve yards from the western wall, lie buried in a substantial vault the remains of his favourite daughter and her new born child. Although the vault is scarcely recognisable from the ruins and rubbish which cover it, the top is in a fair state of preservation and as will be seen from the inscription is not without interest. To some people it presents a little puzzle; to others it is full of romantic sentiment. The stone which has worn remarkably well is of a fine quality slate, such as is commonly used for the roofs of vaults and mural tablets. It measures six feet eight inches long, three feet four inches broad, and is five inches thick with a half inch level round the upper edge. Considering its age and the use to which the sorrowing husband put it in the first instance it seems a great pity that it should be allowed to lie in the state of neglect in which it is at present. 

PLYMOUTH BURIAL GROUND 

Sacred to the Memory of 
CHARLES JOHN WALLER 
Lieut. 21st Regiment. 
Second son of the late W Waller, Esq., of Chesterton, 
Huntingdonshire who died at Tobago 
1st November 1820 aged 22.

Fort King James

Georgiana Eastmond

Mt. Parnassus, Scarborough. 
Sacred to the Memory of 
GEORGIANA EASTMOND 
who departed this life 
26th February, 1831 
aged 35 years. 

Plantation House

Sir William Young Bart. MP

Government House on the 9th day of January, 1815. 
The marble headstone intended for this grave is on the wall 
of the Church of England in Scarborough. 
St. Andrew's Church, Scarborough. 
Marble Headstone with Arms and Crest of 
Sir William Young, Bart. 
Crest "A hand holding an arrow with the Motto 
Press Through." 
Under this Marble are deposited the remains of 
His Excellency Sir WILLIAM YOUNG, Bart., many years 
Governor of Tobago, who departed this life on the 9th 
day of January, 1815, aged 65 years. 
Twenty three of which he had served his 
Country in Parliament. 
During this period he applied the best exertions of an 
active and intelligent mind to the faithful discharge of his duties. 
Many of his proposals for the amendment of the Poor-laws 
founded in benevolence to the individual 
combined with a due regard to the interest of the public 
was adopted by the Legislature: and may best evince 
that his labours for the benefit of his country were not 
unprofitably employed." 
This Public Testimony 
of respect and regard 
is erected to His Memory 
by the unanimous resolution 
of the Board of Council 
and House of General Assembly 
of Tobago.

Tobago House

Harriet Robinson

Government House, Tobago 
To the Memory of 
HARRIET, 
Daughter of Sir F.P ROBINSON, K.G.B. 
Governor of Tobago 
She died January 4th 1819 aged 10 years 
of the malignant fever with which the Island was 
then afflicted. She was a child of the most amiable and
promising disposition and endearing 
in the highest degree. 

Close up of Cannon

He that believeth in Me 

Though He were dead 
Yet shall he live. 
John. 11th v. 25th. 

Hector Jack

Departed June 1840

Henry Charles Darling

Sacred tothe Memory of 
Major General 
HENRY CHALRES DARLING. 
Lieutenant Governor of the Colony 
who departed this life 
on the 11th February, 1845 aged 64. 

Henry Iles Woodcock

In Memory of 
HENRY ILES WOODCOCK 
Late Chief Justice of Tobago 
who died 16th October, 
1866 aged 66 years. 

The Honourable Henry Yeaates

Sacred to the Memory of 
THE HONOURABLE HENRY YEAATES 
President of H.M. 's Council 
and at various times Administrator 
of the Government of Tobago. 
Died 10th November, 1854 
aged 63 years. 

The Honourable Hugh Mc Dougall

In Memory of 
the Honourable HUGH MAC DOUGALL 
of Islay, Argyleshire 
who departed this life in Tobago 
on the 1st June, 1866 
in the 49th year of his age. 

Isabella Ledgerton

BATIEAUBAY 
near-Speyside 
Here lie interred the remains of 
ISABELLA LEDGERTON 
who died the 14th day of July, 1809 
aged 22 years 
much regretted. 
In memory of whose virtues, sisterly affection 
and devotion, her brother JAMES C. LEDGERTON 
her placeth this stone. 

JACOB PRINCE 

Born 15th July, 1845 
Departed 16th December, 1845 

James A. Caruth Gordon

PLYMOUTH BURIAL GROUND 
In memory of 
JAMES A. CARUTH GORDON 
4th stone of Robt. & Rose Gordon 
who died 26th February, 1856 in his Third Year. 

James Crooks

BELMONT 
Here lieth the remains of 
JAMES CROOKS 
of Belmont Estate in this island 
who departed this life the 
16th day of July 1826 
aged 58 years. 

James Edward Coates

JAMES EDWARD COATES 
Born 19th August, 1836. 
Departed 10th September, 1837

James Gunn Esq.

Sacred to the Memory of 
JAMES GUNN, ESQ. Merchant 
who departed this life 
16th January, 1843 aged 32 
This Tablet have been erected 
by his friends as a Memento 
of their esteem and regret. 

James Henry & Frances Keens C.M.G. 

The Battle fought the Victory won 
Rest in thy Master's Joy."

This stone is erected 
to the Memory of the following children of 
The Hon. JAMES HENRY KEEN, C.M.G. 
and his wife FRANCES KEENS

William Frederick - died Nov. 23rd 1837 - aged 5 months
Susan - do Dec. 9th 1839 - aged 4 years
Emily Alice - do Sept. 14th 1842 - aged 6 months
John Richard - do March 7th 1847 - aged 9 months
Alfred David - do Aug. 4th 1850 - aged 6 months
Annie Louisa - do June 30th 1857 - aged 8 months
James Henry - do Dec. 8th 1864 - aged 21 years
Bicford Charles Angus - do Dec. 5th 1875 - aged 27 years

Also to the Memor of 
FRANCES relict of RICHARD JOHNSON, Esq. of H.M.S. Trinidad 
who died Sept. 23rd 1838, aged 62 years also of 
Caroline Ann who died Aug. 29th 1846 -  aged 6 months 
Clara - do Aug. 12th 1849 - aged 6 months

Children of Frederick Keens Esq., of Tobago 
"One family we dwell in Hirn." E.C. Browne & Co. 
BRISTOL, Eng. 

Tobago House

James Henry Kens C.M.G.

Keen's Place, Calder Hall Road 
Sacred to the Memory of 
The Honourable JAMES HENRY KEENS, C.M.G. 
who died December 23rd 1878 aged 69 years. 
For 50 years he resided in Tobago 
he administered the Government of the 
Colony 5 times. 
Deserving of the position of Honour and Trust. 
In Public and Private 
his life was marked by uprightness and virtue 
who secured him the confidence and esteem 
of the Community. 
He was faithful in all his house and 
having served his generation 
Died in Christ. 
"Servant of Christ well done 
Praise be they new employ

James Hull 

Born 9th December 1854 
Departed 11th December 1854 

James Laird & John Laird

PLYMOUTH BURIAL GROUND 
Sacred to the Memory of 
JAMES LAIRD 
who died here the 5th July 1820. 
Aged 21 years. 
This tone was erected by 
JOHN LAIRD 
his father of Port Glasgow 
in affectionate remembrance of a Dutiful Son. 

James Thomas Light 

Born 4th September, 1776 
Departed 2nd August, 1833. 

James Wellington

Sacred to the Memory of 
JAMES WELLINGTON 
son of the Honourable John Mc Call 
who died 6th September 1863 
aged 2 years and 10 months. 
"The Lord gave and the Lord hath taken away. 
Blessed be the name of the Lord." 

James William Eyre Esq.

Sacred to the Memory of 
JAMES WILLIAM EYRE, ESQ. 
Royal Engineers. 
Second sone of the Rev. JAMES EYRE 
of Solihull in the Country of Warwick and 
Rector of Winterboume and of Nettleton, Wilts. 
He died August 21, 1825 aged 33. 
Deeply lamented by his family and friends. 

Jane Theresa Grant

Born June 17th 1837
Departed February 24th 1874. 

Jane Yeates

who died in this Island on 2nd of September 1838. aged 25 years 
Beloved and regretted. 
RISELANDS 
Erected to the Memory of 
JANE 
wife of HENRY YEATES 
who departed this life October 1st 1829. 
Her congenial and other virtues and her amiable disposition endeared her to all who knew her and her early death has proved an irreparable loss to an affectionate and sorrowing husband to whom she had been a wife for five years. 
Note: Henry Yeates was the Registrar of Slaves in Tobago. Buried in St. Andrews Churchyard. 

Janet Glover

CONCORDIA ESTATE 
Sacred to the Memory of 
JANET 
wife of JOHN GLOVER, Esq. 
of this island 
who departed this life on the 
11th day of September 
Anno Domini 1815. 
"Give her of the Fruit of her hands and let her own 
works praise her in the Gates." 

John D. Belfast 

Died October 20th 1853 
aged 39 years. 

John George Alleyne

Sacred to the Memory of 
JOHN GEORGE ALLEYNE 
who departed this life 
on the 25th day of July 
in the year of Our Lord 1824 
aged 61 years. 
He was a kind and dutiful husband 
an affectionate father 
and a sincere friend. 
He has left an afflicted widow and 
two fatherless sons to deplore his loss. 
Also 
Beneath this stone lie the remains of 
his deceased brother 
BENJAMIN ALLEYNE 
who died on the 19th day of August, 1829 
aged 54 years.

John Hastie

WOODLANDS ESTATE 
Sacred to the Memory of 
JOHN HASTIE 
who departed this life 16th March, 1832
"I know that my Redeemer loveth."

John Hector Brown

Born October 2nd 1821 
Departed November 3rd 1860

John Henryhamilton

Sacred to the Memory of 
JOHN HENRY HAMILTON 
of Tobago. 
Born June 25th 1834 
Died December 28th 1868. 

John McCall

Betsey's Hope or Louis D'Or Estate 
Sacred to the Memory of 
The Honourable JOHN McCALL 
of Betsey's Hope Estate 
who died at Tobago 
24th March, 1879.

John Theodore Hull

Born February 27th 1848 
Departed September 21st 1850 

John Unlacke Jeffery

Sacred to the Memory of 
Captain JOHN UNLACKE JEFFERY 
of the 81st Regt. of Foot 
who departed this life at Tobago 
on the 1st July, 1841 aged 34 
This Tablet is erected by his Brother Officers. 

Joseph Scott & John Scott

SACRED to the Memory of the Honourable 
JOSEPH SCOTT 
who departed this life while in Command of the Island 
The 11th March, 1843 aged 67 

......................

SACRED to the Memory of 
JOHN SCOTT 
who departed this life 
1819 aged 24.

......................

Judith Piggott

LAMBEAU 
near site of old Great House. 
here lieth the Body of 
JUDITH PIGGOTT, Spinster 
Daughter of 
JOHN AND MARGARET PIGGOTT 
of the Island Barbados. 
She departed this life on the 
twelfth day of December, 1798, 
aged 27 years. 

Keighley Yorshire

in Keighley, Yorshire 
Departed May 1st, 1833 in Tobago 
aged 39 years. 

Glorify your Father

"Let your Light so shine 
Before men, that they 
may see your good works
and glorify your Father 
which is in Heaven."

Lieutenant F.P. Robinson

To the Memory of 
Lieut. F.P ROBINSON 
of the 4th Regt. of Foot. 
Aide de Camp and Private Secretary of His Father. 
Sir F. P ROBINSION, K.G.B. Governor of Tobago. 
He died of a malignant fever March 15th 1820 in the 21st 
year of his age deeply lamented by his father and family 
and by all who knew him. 

Lieutenant General The Right Hon. Stapleton Lord Combermere

Comer stone - Old Military 
Hospital, Fort St. George, now 
residence for the Warden. 
The inscription reads as follows:-
His Excellency Lieut. General 
The Right Honourable STAPLETON 
Lord Combermere 
G.C.B., C.C.T.S. & G.C.G. 
Commander of the Forces 
etc. etc. etc. 
Lieut Colonel S.T POPHAM 
24th Foot D. Q.M.C.- 1818 
Lt. col. Walker, Architect. 

Lieutenant Thomas John Peshall

Wreck of Lieutenant PESHALL, 
of the British Frigate LA FRANCHISE. 
To the Humane

The following detail and chain of evidence regarding Lt. Thomas John Peshall, and his companions wrecked in a schooner belonging to His Majesty's British frigate, La Franchise, in the Gulph of Mexico on the 9th of January, 1806, is addressed by Lady Peshall, the unhappy Mother of Lieutenant Peshall, to Merchant 


Major A Cameron

FORT ST GEORGE, SCARBOROUGH 
Officers' Burial Ground 
Sacred to the Memory of 
Brevet Major A. CAMERON. 
21st Regiment late 79th Highlanders 
who died at Tobago 22nd October 1820 
aged 28 years. 
C. Rossi. Barbados 

Margaret Douglas

In the Memory of 
MARGARET, Relict of 
ROBERT DOUGLAS, M.C.S.C. 
and late Speaker of the
 House of Assembly of Tobago. 
Died 2nd February 1867 
aged 72 years and 5 months. 

Margeret H. Duke

Born March 6th 1847 
Departed November 16th 1850.

Maria King

Sheerwood or Shirwood Park. 
Sacred to the Memory of 
MARIA KING 
The last survivor of the family of 

Marina Jane Lancaster

Born 5th may, 1852 
Departed 30th April, 1863. 

Martha Rogers

To the Memory of 
MARTHA ROGERS 
who departed this life 4th May, 1859 
in her 26th year

Martha Taylor

MONTGOMERY 
MARTHA TAYLOR From Antigua. 
Departed October 31st 1851. 


Mary Ann Lancaster

Born 17th may, 1850 
Departed 17th August, 1852.

Mary Light

Born 25th November, 1784 
Departed 3rd September, 1838. 

Christopher William Irvine Esq.

RUNYMEDE 
called by the old inhabitants 
"Massa's Grave" 
Sacred to the Memory of 
CHRISTOPHER WILLIAM IRVINE, ESQ. 
who died in this Island on the 
13th January 1810 aged 53. 
Note: Mr. C.W Irvine was a Member of 
the House of Assembly and the owner of Runymede Estate. 

Lieutenant Governor Peter Campbell &
MadalaineVebtour

MOUNT PLEASANT 
near Church of England School. 
In Memory of The Honourable 
Lieutenant Governor PETER CAMPBELL 
who died on the ninth day of January MDCCLXXIX (1779) aged 52 years. 
Mt. Pleasant Church of England Burial Ground. 
Sacred to the Memory of MADELAINE VENTOUR 
only daughter of BENJAMIN VENTOUR, ESQ. of 
AUCHEN SKEOCH ESTATE 
Departed this life on August 28th 1847 
aged 21 years. 

Lieutenant Otto B Mackie Esq.

Sacred to the Memory of 
OTIO. B. MACKIE, Esq. 
Lieutenant in the 
Royal Regt. of Artillery and Fort Adjutant 
of this Colony who departed this life 
August the 3rd 1846 aged 27 years 
Erected as a Tribute 
of Affection
By his eldest brother.

Airman Mackenzie photographer at Milford road to Sandy Point

Peter Tait

To the Memory of 
The Honourable PETER TAIT 
who died 9th July, 1859, aged 64. 

Mr. Tait was a native of Dunfrieshire in Scotland but for 
many years a valued member of this community, to 
which in various capacities he rendered lasting 
obligations. But his memory is chiefly endeared to his 
adopted County for his extensive charities and active 
benevolence virtues which survive him in the 
Testamentary provision which he made for 
the poor of every religious denomination in the Colony. 

Sacred to the Memory of 
The Honourable PETER TAIT 
who died the 9th July, 1859 
aged 64 years.

Richard Newton Bennett

Sacred to the Memory of 
The Honourable RICHARD NEWTON BENNETT 
of Blackstoops in the County of Wexford, Ireland 
where his family had resided 
during a Century and a half. 
He was called to the Bar in the year 1796 
was appointed Chief Justice of 
Tobago 16th April 1832 
and departed this life 15th February 1836 
aged 66 years. 
He was endeared to his friends by the aniableness 
of a temper which no annoyance could sour 
and a benevolence no injury could convert. 

Tobago, Botanic Gardens

Robert Austin

BOTANIC GARDENS, Scarbough 
Sacred to the Memory of 
ROBERT AUSTIN 
of Glasgow 
who died 19th July 

Robert Douglas

In Memory of
ROBERT DOUGLAS 
Born 22nd January, 1800 
Died 17th April, 1859. 

Robinson Scobie

To the Memory of 
ROBINSON SCOBIE 
Merchant in this island 
who died 12th July, 1856 
in his 28th year. 
This Memorial has been
 erected by his widow. 

Samuel Henry Frederick Abbott

To the Memory of 
SAMUEL HENRY FREDERICK ABBOTT 
Late Chief Justice of Tobago 
who died on the 10th of October, 1867 
This stone has been erected by 
Public subscription.

Samuel Wright

MONTGOMERY 
SAMUEL M. WRIGHT 
Born March 24th, 1794 

Sidney Herbert Knocker Esq.

In Memory of 
Sidney Herbert KNOCKER, Esq. 
Lieutenant of the Corps of Royal Engineers 
son of WILLIAM KNOCKER, Esq. 
of Dover, Kent 
who departed this life 
on the 2nd day of November 1821 
in the 29th year of his age. 
Blessed are those Servants 
whom the Lord when He cometh 
shall find watching. 
Luke 12th v 37th 
Watch, therefore 
For ye know not what hour. 
Matt. 27th v. 42nd 
Lest corning suddenly he finds you sleeping. 
Mark 13th v. 36th

Sir William Young Bart. M.P.

Government House, Tobago. 
This is the grave of 
Sir William Young, Bart., M.P.
For many years Governor of Tobago who died at 
Government House on the 9th day of January, 1815. 
The marble headstone intended for this grave is on the wall 
of the Church of England in Scarborough. 
St. Andrew's Church, Scarborough. 
Marble Headstone with Arms and Crest of 
Sir William Young, Bart. 
Crest "A hand holding an arrow with the Motto
Press Through." 
Under this Marble are deposited the remains of His 
Excellency Sir WILLIAM YOUNG, Bart., many years 
Governor of Tobago, who departed this life on the 9th 
day of January, 1815, aged 65 years. 
Twenty three of which he had served his 
Country in Parliament. 
During this period he applied the best exertions of an 
active and intelligent mind to the faithful discharge of 
his duties. Many of his proposals for the amendment of the Poor-laws
founded in benevolence to the individual 
combined with a due regard tothe interest of the public 
was adopted by the Legislature: and may best evince 
that his labours for the benefit of his country were not 
unprofitably employed." 
This Public Testimony 
of respect and regard 
is erected to His Memory 
by the unanimous resolution 
of the Board of Council 
and House of General Assembly 
of Tobago.

Adventure buses waiting for travelers

Stewart Lancaster

In Memory of 
STEW ART LANCASTER 
who died April 29th 1854 
aged 75 years. 

Susanna Mary Hull

MONTGOMERY 
Moravian Burial Ground 
SUSANNA MARY HULL 
Born October 16th, 1849 
Departed September 29th 1850 

Susanna Patrick

August 20th, 1838 
February 4th 1854 
aged 26 years.

Pigeon Point Jetty circa 1940s

"Blessed are the dead 
which die in the Lord."

This stone is placed over his 
Mortal remains by his most attached, 
affectionate and mourning widow and sons.

Thomas William Horsford

Departed April 23rd, 1861 
aged 25 years.

Thos Bird Esq.

Thos. BIRD, Esq. of 
SHIRWOOD PARK ESTA TE TOBAGO 
wife of JOHN KING, Master in H.M.R.N. 
and a member of the Legislative Council in his island. 
she departed this life 14th February 1817 
leaving an affectionate husband and three sons 
to deplore the loss of the 
most loving wife, affectional mother and sincere friend 
that ever lived. 

US Air Force officer inspects a donkey on Hamilton Street

Walter Hamilton

Departed November 20th 1845 
aged 56 years. 

Droghers off Scarborough

William Arendale Child

The Glen, Scarborough, Tobago 
In Memory of 
WILLIAM ARNDALE CHILD 
For many years a Magistrate in this island. 
Born at Edinburgh July 30th 1803. 
Died at the Glen October 25th 1861. 
Erected by his affectionate widow.

A young man transporting his produce with a donkey 

William Augustus Prince

WILLIAM AUGUSTUS PRINCE 
Born 24th November, 1790 
Departed 9th August 1849. 

William Henry Scott

BURLEIGH CASTLE 
Now Government Farm. 
Sacred to the Memory of 
WILLIAM HENRY SCOTT 
who departed this life at
BURLEIGH CASTLE ESTATE
 11th January 1834 
after 24 years 1 month and 4 days.

William Kennedy Cockburn

CONCORDIA ESTATE 
In Memory of 
WILLIAM KENNEDY COCKBURN 
Second son of the late 
WALTER COCKBURN, ESQ. 
of Edinburgh 
who died here on the 17th August 1848 
aged 33 years. 

Donkey Cart

William Lemon

WILLIAM LEMON 
Born January 24th, 1837 
Departed September 26th, 1858 
aged 21 years. 

William Maynard

Sacred to the Memory of 
WILLIAM MAYNARD 
Son of William and Mary Alleyne 
who departed this life on the 
10th day of August 1829 aged 3 months 

William Pollock

Sacred to the Memory of 
WILLIAM POLLOCK 
infant son of the 
Honourable John McCall 
who died 11th April 1868. 
"Christ said suffer little children to come unto me 
and forbid them not for such is the Kingdom of God."